Pengaruh upah reservasi dan umur terhadap lama mencari kerja di Indonesia

Ratih Sari Dewi, Dwini Handayani


Reservation wage is the main variable in the job search model. Age effect based on the life course can also explains the differences in job search behavior. This study aims to understand the effect of reservation wage and age on job search duration. Using Indonesia’s Labor Force Survey, we first estimate the reservation wage of labour force aged 15-64 years with a Two-Step Heckman regression. The results show that reservation wage and age effect have an impact on job search duration. A per cent increase in reservation wages will extend job search duration by 0.97 months. The average reservation wage of the unemployed is higher than employed with a longer job search. The study found indications of discrimination against young job seekers (15-22). They are more likely to accept any work and vulnerable to receive indecent wages and hours. The higher their education and skills, the shorter their job search duration. The study also presumes a gap in agriculture, trade, and the construction industry and informal sector, indicated by high job turnover. The synergy among the workforce, firm, and government will support the utilization of Indonesia’s demographic dividend moment. 


age effect; job search duration; reservation wage; two-step Heckman

Full Text:



Addison, J. T., & Portugal, P. (1998). Job Search Methods and Outcomes. In Oxford Economic Papers (Vols. 98–41, Issue 3).

Baillie, R. T., & Kim, K. H. (2018). Choices between OLS with robust inference and feasible GLS in time series regressions. Economics Letters, 171, 218–221.

Bischoff, W. (1998). A Functional Central Limit Theorem for Regression Models Source. The Annals of Statistics, 26(4), 1398–1410.

Fedorets, A., Filatov, A., & Shupe, C. (2018). Great Expectations: Reservation Wage and The Minimum Wage Reform. Journal of Economic Behavior, 41(2), 110–111.

Gorgens, T. (2002). Reservation Wages and Working Hours for Recently Unemployed US Women. Labour Economics, 9(1), 93–123.

Huang, F. L. (2016). Alternatives to Multilevel Modeling for the Analysis of Clustered Data. Journal of Experimental Education, 84(1), 175–196.

Hui, W. T. (1991). Reservation wage analysis of unemployed youths in Australia. Applied Economics, 23(8), 1341–1350.

Ioannides, Y., & Datcher Loury, L. (2004). Information Networks, Neighborhood Effects, and Inequality. Journal of Economic Literature, 42(4), 1056–1093.

J.Heckman, J. (1979). Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error Author ( s ): James J . Heckman Reviewed work ( s ): Published by : The Econometric Society Stable URL : . Econometrica, 47(1), 153–161.

Johnson, R. W., & Mommaerts, C. (2012). Age Differences in Job Displacement, Job Search, and Reemployment. SSRN Electronic Journal, January.

Katz, M. B., & Ginsburg, K. (2015). Immigrant Cities as Reservations for Low Wage Labor. American Sociological Association, 14(1), 26–31.

Khan, B. M., & Majid, M. F. (2019). Gender Reservation Wage Gap in Developing Countries. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, 13:28(92177).

Kulik, L. (2000). Women face unemployment: A comparative analysis of age groups. Journal of Career Development, 27(1), 15–33.

Lancaster, T., & Chesher, A. (1983). An Econometric Analysis of Reservation Wages. Journal of Econometric Society, 51(6), 1661–1676.

Leppin, J. S. (2012). The Estimation of Reservation Wages: A Simulation-Based Comparison. In HWWI Research Paper 124 (Vol. 234, Issue 5).

Levinson, D. J. (1986). A Conception of Adult Development. American Psychologist, 41, 3–13.

Menzio, G., Telyukova, I. A., & Visschers, L. (2016). Directed Search Over the Life Cycle. Review of Economic Dynamics, 19, 38–62.

Möller, J., & Aldashev, A. (2007). Wage Inequality, Reservation Wages and Labor Market Participation: Testing the Implications of a Search-Theoretical Model with Regional Data. International Regional Science Review, 30(2), 120–151.

Mortensen, D. L. (1986). Chapter 15: Job Search and Labor Market Analysis. In Handbook of Labor Economics (pp. 849–919).

Murphy, M. M. (2012). Exploring Generational Differences Among Millennials, Gen Xers, and Baby Boomers: Work Values, Manager Behavior Expectations, and The Impact of Manager Behaviors on Work Engagement. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 73(October).

Pasay, N. H. A., & Indrayanti, R. (2012). Unemployment, Job Search Duration, and Reservation Wage of Educated Labor Force. Jurnal Ekonomi Dan Pembangunan Indonesia, 12(2), 116–135.

Shimer, R., & Werning, I. (2007). Reservation Wages and Unemployment Insurance. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 122(3), 1145–1185.

Streiner, D. L., Norman, G. R., & Cairney, J. (2015). Health Measurement Scales : A Practical Guide to Their Development and Use (5th ed.). Oxford University Press.

Vansteenkiste, S., Deschacht, N., & Sels, L. (2015). Why are unemployed aged fifty and over less likely to find a job? A decomposition analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 90, 55–65.

Vasilescu, M. D., & Begu, L. S. (2019). Youth reservation wages in Romania: are wage expectations realistic? Applied Economics Letters, 26(14), 1157–1161.

Zacher, H., & Froidevaux, A. (2021). Life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives on vocational behavior and development: A theoretical framework, review, and research agenda. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 126(December 2019), 103476.

Zuo, B., & Lai, Z. (2020). The Effect of Housing Wealth on Tourism Consumption in China: Age and Generation Cohort Comparisons. Tourism Economics, 26(2), 211–232.


Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Kependudukan Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Research Center for Population, Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Widya Graha Building, 7th and 10th floors
Jl. Jenderal Gatot Subroto 10 Jakarta Selatan, Telp (021) 5221687
Website: http:/;